Compiano Historical Signs
Of Compiano we have historical news beginning from the X century d.C., but the human population of the valley of the Taro goes up again to some thousand of years before and the installation on the hill of Completes and of very antecedent to the date of the written documents. The area of Ends it extended him on the two sides of the river Taro, with beginning awry in the place Borio and finish in valley in the place Parish of Fields. There are around some installations with place names like Ronco Desiderio, Barbigarezza (Vervecarecium=allevamento of goats) and Sugremaro (Ronco Sigilmario).
In one of the necks above rose the fortification=Castrum. The town was called “Castrum cum campo plano” , then “Castrum cum plano” , then “Cumplano” and now “Compiano”.
In the tall Middle Ages there was already the castle strengthened past for dominant launchings among which the Malaspina; then Compiano it ended under the control of the common in Piacenza; subsequently taking advantage of a crisis of this last, Umbertino Landi, a noble ghibellin, purchased terrestrial near Compiano and it began so the dominion of the Landis on the two Valleys that it lasted 425 years.
To the beginning of 1400 the dominion of the Landis was replaced by the predominance of the Viscounti in Compiano and in Bardi, but subsequently it was reestablished from Sforza. In the 1532 Agostino Landi, Mr. of Bardi, he married his cousin Julia Landi, of Compiano, and he reunified the possessions getting from the emperor of Germany the title of Prince. The XVI and XVII century they were two centuries of shine for Compiano, Valle del Taro’s capital, and Bardi, Valle del Ceno’s capital. The State had own coin and free public schools; to Compiano it operated the Zecca and the Monte di Pietà for the grains and to Bardi a College of Notaries.
To the beginning of 600 the prince Federico Landi, skilled diplomat, contributed to increase the prestige of completes in other states.*
To the death of Federico, that he didn’t have male children, the State passed to his daughter Polissena, wife of Gian Andrea Doria, which surrendered the State to the rich Farnesi, from Parma, in 1682. From that moment the decline started of Compiano; in the Castle a military garrison was installed, but the other institutions were transferred to Borgotaro. Under the Dukedom of Maria Luigia the Castle became jail and Parma’s people were confined among which the count Gallenga, as it tells in its diary of imprisonment. After the unity of Italy the Castle was sold to private, it suffered some transformations and it had finally become female college since 1900 to the 1962.
It was purchased then from Lina Raymonds Gambarotta, that did own abode of it and in 1987 she left it in inheritance to the Common of Compiano. This started a program of restauration and recovery of the spaces for a new use consistent with the actual demands of Compiano and of the Valley. The Castle now entertains: a Center conference, a Museum with a collection of furnish and paintings and an important harvest of heirlooms of the Freemasonry. A bystander of the castle is busy from a hotel of prestige.
*In 1595 the prince Federico facilitated the marriage of his sister Maria Landi with Ercole Grimaldi of Monaco. After a few years Ercole Grimaldi was murdered and few Maria Landi also died. Federico moved to Monaco, what guardian of the children of Ercole Maria and he made to grant from the emperor the title of prince to the honorable nephew Grimaldi. It started so the dynasty of the principles of Monaco; to memory of this event the prince Alberto of Monaco came in visit to Compiano at the first time in 2003 and then on May 15 2018.
BIBLIOGRAPHY – Edition by Compiano Arte Storia
Gino Alpi, Ettore Rulli – Storia di Compiano in Val Taro
V. Fumagalli, G. Petracco Sicardi, D. Ponzini – Val Taro e Val Ceno nell’Alto Medioevo
Ettore Rulli – Il Castello di Compiano
Carlo Natale – Libro della descritione in rame de i Stati et Feudi Imperiali di Don Federico Landi
D. Ponzini, E. Rulli – Il Monastero delle Monache in Compiano
Ettore Rulli – Compiano e i Compianesi, 500 anni di vita della gente di Compiano